Process description

Wax injection

The mould is filled with fluid wax. After cooling, the wax model is pushed from the mould using ejectors in the mould. A wax model will been formed with the same shape as the final cast piece.

Wax sprue assembling

These wax models must assembling into a "tree" by heating the attachment point until it becomes fluid and sticks to a wax branch. This creates the casting mould. As many same products as possible are stuck to the wax tree. The top of the wax tree is equipped with a casting funnel through which steel will be poured later in the next process.

Shell building

A fire-resistant ceramic coating is created by plunging the wax tree multiple times into a fluid sludge and then sprinkling it with ceramic powder. After the application of every ceramic layer, the casting mould must be dried in a drying chamber under atmosphere conditions.


All the ceramic layers have been dried; the wax in the ceramic mould is melted in an autoclave using steam. This is why this process is called the lost wax casting method: the wax model disappears; the product shape is then taken over by the ceramic coating.


The desired steel alloy is melted in a smelting furnace and brought up to a casting temperature of (approximately) 1600 °C. The hot mould is then removed from the kiln and poured full. Heating the ceramic mould prevents a thermal shock during casting. The fluid steel is poured into a hot mould, it takes some time before solidification.


The ceramic skin is removed from the steel casting moulds by breaking the shell with manual work hammer. This removes the majority of the ceramic. The cast pieces are sawed off or vibrated away from the steel tree.

Cut off

Cut off the steel tree into grinding process.

Grinding& Mirror finishing operation

Any edges remaining on the sawn-off cast piece are sanded off by sanding mould.

Vibratory finishing

The final production process is vibratory finishing, the vibratory finishing process used to deburr, radius, descale, burnish, clean, and brighten.